A star that massive needs a lot of fuel to stay bright. As we mentioned above, supergiants will eventually die as supernovae. Rigel, seen at the bottom right, in the constellation Orion the Hunter is a blue supergiant star. Once the hydrogen fuel is gone, however, the core of the star will rapidly collapse and heat up. For low- and medium-mass stars, that step causes them to evolve into red giants, while high-mass stars become red supergiants. High-mass stars may also employ the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle to help drive the reactions. Around 90 percent of the stars in the Universe are main sequence stars, including our sun. For the most part though, blue giant stars fall into the O and B spectral classes, and are categorized as either luminosity class III giants or class II bright giants. While blue giant stars have a surface temperature of at least 10,000 Kelvin, compared to say a yellow dwarf star like our Sun at about 6,000K, another type of star called blue supergiants (class I) are even more extreme, with a surface temperature of between 10,000–50,000K and luminosities of 10,000 to a million times brighter than the Sun. Main sequence stars typically range from between one tenth to 200 times the Sun’s mass. Blue giant stars are rare in the galaxy compared to other stars. The fastest known rotator is a blue giant star. A famous examples of a bright blue giant star is Spica, a binary system whose primary component is a blue giant, and together with its companion, make up the 4 brightest star in the constellation Virgo. The blue supergiant star found in the Large Megallanic Cloud designated R136a1, for instance, is so massive that its very existence is posing a serious challenge to all the standard models of star formation. Moreover, Spica was the star whose movement across the sky had led the ancient astronomer Hipparchus to discover the precession of the equinoxes. Supernova SN 1987A was the death of a blue giant star. 5 Bizarre Paradoxes Of Time Travel Explained, 10 Interesting Facts about the Missions to Jupiter. In practice, this means that a massive star can rapidly change from being a blue giant to becoming a bright blue giant, and then a yellow supergiant, before ending up as a red supergiant. Recent Posts Admissions Survival Kit Tool #9: Leap Ahead with these Insider Profiles Blue supergiants also have very fast, thin stellar winds blowing away into space. There are many different types of stars that astronomers study. While the core of the star is very hot, the energy is spread out through the star's interior as well as its incredibly large surface area. This causes the outer lays of the star to expand outward due to the increased heat generated in the core. Is a Doomsday Asteroid Heading Towards Earth? Stars such as Altair, Alpha Centauri A and B, and Procyon A are called dwarf stars; their dimensions are roughly comparable to those of the Sun. Blue giant stars are extreme in many ways, one example of which is the rotational velocity of VFTS 102, a 25-solar mass blue supergiant star in the star forming region of the Large Megallanic Cloud caled the Tarantula Nebula. Background. When they do, the final stage of their evolution can be as a neutron star (pulsar) or black hole. Astronomy Lists, Stars Because of their relatively high masses, blue supergiants of the O spectral class will burn through their hydrogen fuel in only about a million years or so, before expiring as supernovas a few million years later. Think of them as the 800-pound gorillas of the stars. … The best-known is the Crab Nebula, where a star exploded thousands of years ago. Since there is no clear definition of blue giant stars, the term is frequently applied to any hot, massive star, albeit erroneously in some cases. Most blue giant stars occur in OB associations. The blue dots sprinkled throughout the image are ultra-blue stars whose population increases around the crowded hub. It became visible on Earth in the year 1054 and can still be seen today through a telescope. There are other highly evolved hot stars not generally referred to as blue giants: Wolf–Rayet stars, highly luminous and distinguished by their extreme temperatures and prominent helium and nitrogen emission lines; post-AGB stars forming planetary nebulae, similar to Wolf–Rayet stars but smaller and less massive; blue stragglers, uncommon luminous blue stars observed apparently on the main sequence … The luminosity class of such a rapidly changing star is determined by the changes in its spectrum that are caused by changes in temperature and surface gravity. Blue Giant A blue giant star is a swelling middle-aged star that is running out of hydrogen to burn but hasn’t started burning helium. That's the executive summary of a blue supergiant. A Type II supernova event can occur during the red supergiant phase of evolution, but, it can qalso happen when a star evolves to become a blue supergiant. The square box shows a close-up view of an area around the core. Although the progenitor star of the Crab may not have been a blue supergiant, it illustrates the fate awaiting such stars as they near the ends of their lives. While blue giant stars are typically more modestly sized, blue supergiant stars can have more than 25 solar radii and 20 solar masses, making them the most massive stars in the Universe. Peter Christoforou Stars are a multicolored bunch. The sun will eventually become a red giant. Origin and definition. From Star to White Dwarf: the Saga of a Sun-like Star. In astronomy, the term “blue giant star” does not have a clear definition. At 29 times bigger than the Sun, it is not the largest star yet found, but it is the most luminous, shining at a whopping 8.7 million solar luminosities with its incredible surface temperature of about 53,000K. In this phase, stars convert hydrogen into helium in their cores through the nuclear fusion process known as the proton-proton chain. For example, Supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud was the death of a blue supergiant. Typically, a blue giant star would have an absolute magnitude of about 0 and brighter, and be about twice as massive as the Sun, while typically being only about 5 to 10 times bigger. It reveals that stars spend the vast majority of their lives in a period defined as "being on the main sequence". Star Sapphire - This is a stone that has a naturally formed blue star on top Tanzanite - this is a dark translucent violet blue color Topaz - a Translucent stone from very light blue to medium blue Tourmaline - the blue form of this stone is very rare Turquoise - this is a light to medium blue with green throughout For all stars, the primary nuclear fuel is hydrogen. At that point, the star is nearing the end of its life and will soon (on timescales of the universe anyway) experience a supernova event. Refer to the image below; here blue giants are represented by the giant stars Bellatrix and Spica, while the blue supergiants Rigel and Deneb appear to the upper right of the main sequence. After a few million years, these type of starts will begin to burn helium and swell up further. 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